المعتز يوسف عبد العزيز محمد
أستاذ في هندسة القوى والآلات الكهربية
المعلومات المهنية
المعلومات الدراسية
نبذة مختصرة
Almoataz Y. Abdelaziz received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, in 1985 and 1990, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering according to the channel system between Ain Shams University, Egypt, and Brunel University, U.K., in 1996.
He is a professor of electrical power engineering at Ain Shams University since 2007. He has authored or coauthored more than 525 refereed journal and conference papers, 45 book chapters and 6 edited books with Elsevier, Springer and CRC Press in his research areas which include the applications of artificial intelligence, evolutionary and heuristic optimization techniques to power systems power system operation, planning, and control.
Dr. Abdelaziz is the chair of IEEE Education Society chapter in Egypt, editor of Electric Power Components & Systems Journal, Editorial Board member, Editor, Associate Editor, and Editorial Advisory Board member for many international journals.
He is also a senior member in IEEE, a member in IET and the Egyptian Sub-Committees of IEC and CIGRE’. He has been awarded many prizes for distinct researches and for international publishing from Ain Shams University and Future University in Egypt.
الجوائز التقديرية
• Egyptian Government Undergraduate Scholarship, October 1980 – June 1985.
• 1985 Distinction Award from Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University.
• University of Ain-Shams Graduate Scholarship, 1986 – 1990.
• 1994 - 1996 Channel Grant in Brunel University, England from the Egyptian Government.
• Winner of Ain Shams University Prize for Distinct Researches in 2002.
• Prize of Ain Shams University for international publishing in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2019, 2020, 2021.
• Acknowledgement letter for the top ten cited papers in Electric Power Components and Systems Journal for the 2008-2010 time period.
• Prize of best researcher in Electrical Power and Machines Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University for the period 2009-2012.
• Listed in Who's Who in the World® 2016 (33rd Edition).
• Best Paper Award in 19th International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), Paris, 2017.
• Prize of best researcher in Future University in Egypt, 2019.
• Best Paper Award in 11th International Renewable Energy Congress (IREC), Tunisia, 2020.
• Recognized among the top 2% Scientists Worldwide according to Stanford University Study, 2020.
• Recognized among the top 2% Scientists Worldwide according to Stanford University Study, 2021.
الكتب
13 Books (Author).
6 Books (Editor)
45 Book chapter.
المقالات والدوريات
340 Journal paper
الأبحاث
- , " Network distribution Power loss Reconfiguration Whale optimization ", international journal of applied power and engineering, 2020
- S. Khadar, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Zakaria Elbarbary, Mahmoud Mohamed, " An Improved Sensorless Nonlinear Control Based on SC-MRAS Estimator of Open-End Winding Five-Phase Induction Motor Fed by Dual NPC Inverter: Hardware-in-the-Loop Implementation ", Machines, 2023
- Manish Kumar Singla, Jyoti Gupta, Beant Singh, Parag Nijhawan, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Adel El-Shahat, " Parameter Estimation of Fuel Cells Using a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm ", Sustainability, 2023
- Ahmed G. Mahmoud A. Aziz, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Ziad Ali, Ahmed A. Zaki Diab, " A Comprehensive Examination of Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive Techniques ", Energies, 2023
- Solomon Aklilu, satish raavi, Balamurali Pydi, Degarege Anteneh, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Adel El-Shahat, " Damping of Frequency and Power System Oscillations with DFIG Wind Turbine and DE Optimization ", Sustainability, 2023
- Solomon Feleke, Degarege Anteneh, Balamurali Pydi, satish raavi, Adel El-Shahat, Almoataz Abdelaziz, " Feasibility and Potential Assessment of Solar Resources: A Case Study in North Shewa Zone, Amhara, Ethiopia ", Energies, 2023
- Mahmoud Aref, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Zong Woo Geem, Junhee Hong, Farag K. Abo-Elyousr, " Oscillation Damping Neuro-Based Controllers Augmented Solar Energy Penetration Management of Power System Stability ", Energies, 2023
- Mohammed Hamouda Ali, Ahmed Mohammed Attiya Soliman,Ahmed Mohamed Attia Soliman,A.M.AttiyaSoliman,Ahmed M. A. Soliman, Mohamed Abdeen, Tarek Kandil, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Adel El-Shahat, " A Novel Stochastic Optimizer Solving Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem Considering Renewable Energy Resources ", Energies, 2023
- Mahmoud Aref, Vladislav Oboskalov, Adel El-Shahat, Almoataz Abdelaziz, " Modified Analytical Technique for Multi-Objective Optimal Placement of High-Level Renewable Energy Penetration Connected to Egyptian Power System ", Mathematics, 2023
- Samrat Chakraborty, Debottam Mukherjee, PABITRA KUMAR GUCHHAIT, Somudeep Bhattacharjee, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Adel El-Shahat, " Optimum Design of a Renewable-Based Integrated Energy System in Autonomous Mode for a Remote Hilly Location in Northeastern India ", Energies, 2023
- Saswati Mishra, Shubhrata Gupta, Anamika Yadav, Almoataz Abdelaziz, " Traveling Wave-Based Fault Localization in FACTS-Compensated Transmission Line via Signal Decomposition Techniques ", Energies, 2023
- Alaa M. Abdel-hamed, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Adel El-Shahat, " Design of a 2DOF-PID Control Scheme for Frequency/Power Regulation in a Two-Area Power System Using Dragonfly Algorithm with Integral-Based Weighted Goal Objective ", Energies, 2023
- Preeti Ranjan Sahu, Kumaraswamy Simhadri, Banaja Mohanty, Prakash Kumar Hota, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Fahad Albalawi, Sherif Ghoneim, Mahmoud Elsisi, " Effective Load Frequency Control of Power System with Two-Degree Freedom Tilt-Integral-Derivative Based on Whale Optimization Algorithm ", Sustainability, 2023
- Pampa Sinha, Kaushik Paul, Chidurala Saiprakash, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Ahmed I. Omar, Chun-Lien Su, Mahmoud Elsisi, " Identification of Cross-Country Fault with High Impedance Syndrome in Transmission Line Using Tunable Q Wavelet Transform ", Mathematics, 2023
- Fanidhar Dewangan, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Monalisa Biswal, " Load Forecasting Models in Smart Grid Using Smart Meter Information: A Review ", Energies, 2023
- Abdolhamid Mazloumi, Alireza Poolad, MohmmadSadegh Mokhtari, Morteza Babaee Altman, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Mahmoud Elsisi, " Optimal Sizing of a Photovoltaic Pumping System Integrated with Water Storage Tank Considering Cost/Reliability Assessment Using Enhanced Artificial Rabbits Optimization: A Case Study ", Mathematics, 2023
- mohamed metwally, Basiony Shehata Atia, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Noura A. Nour Aldin, " Dynamic Performance Assessment of PMSG and DFIG-Based WECS with the Support of Manta Ray Foraging Optimizer Considering MPPT, Pitch Control, and FRT Capability Issues ", Processes, 2022
- Amr Khaled, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Makram R. Eskaros, Mahmoud A. Attia, Mariam A. Sameh, " Optimal Power Flow with Stochastic Renewable Energy Using Three Mixture Component Distribution Functions ", Sustainability, 2022
- Mohana Alanazi, Abdulaziz Alanazi, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Pierluigi Siano, " Power Flow Optimization by Integrating Novel Metaheuristic Algorithms and Adopting Renewables to Improve Power System Operation ", Applied Sciences, 2022
- Saeed Behzadpoor, Iraj Faraji Davoudkhani, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Zong Woo Geem, Junhee Hong, " Power System Stability Enhancement Using Robust FACTS-Based Stabilizer Designed by a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm ", Energies, 2022
- Amr Khaled Khamees, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Makram R. Eskaros, Mahmoud A. Attia, Ahmed Badr, " The Mixture of Probability Distribution Functions for Wind and Photovoltaic Power Systems Using a Metaheuristic Method ", Processes, 2022
- Mohsen Khalili, Touhid Poursheykh Aliasghari, Ebrahim Seifi Najmi, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Ahmed Abu-Siada, saber arabi nowdeh, " Optimal Allocation of Distributed Thyristor Controlled Series Compensators in Power System Considering Overload, Voltage, and Losses with Reliability Effect ", Energies, 2022
- Abdulaziz Alanazi, Mohana Alanazi, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Hossam Kotb, Ahmad H. Milyani, Abdullah Ahmed Azhari, " Stochastic Allocation of Photovoltaic Energy Resources in Distribution Systems Considering Uncertainties Using New Improved Meta-Heuristic Algorithm ", Processes, 2022
- Abdulaziz Alanazi, Mohana Alanazi, Saber Arabi Nowdeh, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Ahmed Abu-Siada, " Stochastic-Metaheuristic Model for Multi-Criteria Allocation of Wind Energy Resources in Distribution Network using Improved Equilibrium Optimization Algorithm ", Electronics, 2022
- Ahmed M. Mahmoud, Shady H. E. Abdel Aleem, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Mohamed Ezzat, " Towards Maximizing Hosting Capacity by Optimal Planning of Active and Reactive Power Compensators and Voltage Regulators: Case Study ", Sustainability, 2022
- SUBRAT KUMAR DASH, Sivkumar Mishra, Almoataz Abdelaziz, " A Critical Analysis of Modeling Aspects of D-STATCOMs for Optimal Reactive Power Compensation in Power Distribution Networks ", Energies, 2022
- Solomon Feleke, Raavi Satish, Workagegn Tatek, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Adel El-Shahat, " DE-Algorithm-Optimized Fuzzy-PID Controller for AGC of Integrated Multi Area Power System with HVDC Link ", Energies, 2022
- Adel El-Shahat, Joshua Danjuma, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Shady Abdel Aleem, " Human Exposure Influence Analysis for Wireless Electric Vehicle Battery Charging ", Clean Technologies, 2022
- Dhananjaya Mudadla, Devendra Potnuru, Raavi Satish, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Adel El-Shahat, " New Class of Power Converter for Performing the Multiple Operations in a Single Converter: Universal Power Converter ", Energies, 2022
- Prabodh Khampariya, Sidhartha Panda, Hisham Alharbi, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Sherif Ghoneim, " Coordinated Design of Type-2 Fuzzy Lead–Lag-Structured SSSCs and PSSs for Power System Stability Improvement ", Sustainability, 2022
- SUBRAT KUMAR DASH, Sivkumar Mishra, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Junhee Hong, Zong Woo Geem, " Optimal Planning of Multitype DGs and D-STATCOMs in Power Distribution Network Using an Efficient Parameter Free Metaheuristic Algorithm ", Energies, 2022
- Nishant Patnaik, Richa Pandey, Raavi Satish, Balamurali Surakasi, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Adel El-Shahat, " Single-Phase Universal Power Compensator with an Equal VAR Sharing Approach ", Energies, 2022
- SUBRAT KUMAR DASH, Sivkumar Mishra, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Mamdouh L. Alghaythi, Ahmed Allehyani, " Optimal Allocation of Distributed Generators in Active Distribution Networks Using a New Oppositional Hybrid Sine Cosine Muted Differential Evolution Algorithm ", Energies, 2022
- Ekata Kaushik, Vivek Prakash, Om Prakash Mahela, baseem khan, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Junhee Hong, Zong Woo Geem, " Optimal Placement of Renewable Energy Generators Using Grid-Oriented Genetic Algorithm for Loss Reduction and Flexibility Improvement ", Energies, 2022
- Asmamaw sewnet, Baseem Khan, Issaias Gidey, Om Prakash Mahela, Adel El-Shahat, Almoataz Abdelaziz, " Mitigating Generation Schedule Deviation of Wind Farm Using Battery Energy Storage System ", Energies, 2022
- Ekata Kaushik, Vivek Prakash, Om Prakash Mahela, baseem khan, Adel El-Shahat, Almoataz Abdelaziz, " Comprehensive Overview of Power System Flexibility during the Scenario of High Penetration of Renewable Energy in Utility Grid ", Energies, 2022
- Aleena Swetapadma, Shobha Agarwal, Satarupa Chakrabarti, Soham Chakrabarti, Adel El-Shahat, Almoataz Abdelaziz, " Locating Faults in Thyristor-Based LCC-HVDC Transmission Lines Using Single End Measurements and Boosting Ensemble ", Electronics, 2022
- fathalla selim, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Ibrahim B. M. Taha, " Economic Design of Hybrid Pico-Hydraulic/Photovoltaic Generation System: A Case Study in Egypt ", Electronics, 2021
- Raavi Satish, Kanchapogu Vaisakh, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Adel El-Shahat, " A Novel Three-Phase Harmonic Power Flow Algorithm for Unbalanced Radial Distribution Networks with the Presence of D-STATCOM Devices ", Electronics, 2021
- Raavi Satish, Kanchapogu Vaisakh, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Adel El-Shahat, " A Novel Three-Phase Power Flow Algorithm for the Evaluation of the Impact of Renewable Energy Sources and D-STATCOM Devices on Unbalanced Radial Distribution Networks ", Energies, 2021
- Amr Khaled Khamees, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Makram R. Eskaros, Adel El-Shahat, Mahmoud A. Attia, " Optimal Power Flow Solution of Wind-Integrated Power System Using Novel Metaheuristic Method ", Energies, 2021
- Sunil Kumar Mishra, Amitkumar V. Jha, Vijay Kumar Verma, Bhargav Appasani, Almoataz Abdelaziz, N Bizon, " An Optimized Triggering Algorithm for Event-Triggered Control of Networked Control Systems ", Mathematics, 2021
- Dina Emara, Mohamed Ezzat, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Karar Mahmoud, Matti Lehtonen, M. M. F. Darwish, " Novel Control Strategy for Enhancing Microgrid Operation Connected to Photovoltaic Generation and Energy Storage Systems ", Electronics, 2021
- Ahmed F. Bendary, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Mohamed M. Ismail, Karar Mahmoud, Matti Lehtonen, M. M. F. Darwish, " Proposed ANFIS Based Approach for Fault Tracking, Detection, Clearing and Rearrangement for Photovoltaic System ", Sensors, 2021
- Ashraf Ramadan, Mohamed Ebeed, Salah Kamel, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Hassan Haes Alhelou, " Scenario-Based Stochastic Framework for Optimal Planning of Distribution Systems Including Renewable-Based DG Units ", Sustainability, 2021
- Ziad Ali, Ibrahim Mohamed Diaaeldin, Shady Abdel Aleem, Ahmed El-Rafei, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Francisco Jurado, " Scenario-Based Network Reconfiguration and Renewable Energy Resources Integration in Large-Scale Distribution Systems Considering Parameters Uncertainty ", Mathematics, 2020
- Ibrahim Mohamed Diaaeldin, Shady Abdel Aleem, Ahmed El-Rafei, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Ahmed F Zobaa, " Enhancement of Hosting Capacity with Soft Open Points and Distribution System Reconfiguration: Multi-Objective Bilevel Stochastic Optimization ", Energies, 2020
- Omnia S. Elazab, Hany Hasanien, Ibrahim Alsaidan, Almoataz Abdelaziz, S M Muyeen, " Parameter Estimation of Three Diode Photovoltaic Model Using Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm ", Energies, 2020
- Ibrahim Mohamed Diaaeldin, Shady Abdel Aleem, Ahmed El-Rafei, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Ahmed F Zobaa, " A Novel Graphically-Based Network Reconfiguration for Power Loss Minimization in Large Distribution Systems ", Mathematics, 2019
- Ibrahim Mohamed Diaaeldin, Shady Abdel Aleem, Ahmed El-Rafei, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Ahmed F Zobaa, " Optimal Network Reconfiguration in Active Distribution Networks with Soft Open Points and Distributed Generation ", Energies, 2019
- , " MODWT-based fault detection and classification scheme for cross-country and evolving faults ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2019
- , " Optimal configuration and energy management scheme of an isolated micro-grid using Cuckoo search optimization algorithm ", Journal of the Franklin Institute, 2019
- , " Intelligent schemes for fault classification in mutually coupled series-compensated parallel transmission lines ", Neural Computing and Applications, 2019
- , " Fuzzy multi-objective placement of renewable energy sources in distribution system with objective of loss reduction and reliability improvement using a novel hybrid method ", Applied Soft Computing, 2019
- Sherif Mohsen Ismael, Shady Abdel Aleem, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Ahmed F. Zobaa, " Probabilistic Hosting Capacity Enhancement in Non-Sinusoidal Power Distribution Systems Using a Hybrid PSOGSA Optimization Algorithm ", Energies, 2019
- , " State-of-the-art of hosting capacity in modern power systems with distributed generation ", Renewable Energy, 2019
- , " A Novel Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Photovoltaic Application Using Secant Incremental Gradient Based on Newton Raphson ", Power Systems, 2019
- , " A Planning Framework for Optimal Partitioning of Distribution Networks Into Microgrids ", IEEE Systems Journal, 2019
- , " Energy Management for Medium-Voltage Direct Current Networks ", Medium Voltage Direct Current Grid, 2019
- , " Micro-Small-Scale Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Design and Performance Analysis for Micro-Grids Applications ", Smart Microgrids, 2019
- , " Power Extraction from PV Module Using Hybrid ANFIS Controller ", Power Systems, 2019
- , " Protection Schemes for Sustainable Microgrids ", Studies in Systems, Decision and Control, 2019
- Mosaad, A.M., Attia, M.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Comparative Performance Analysis of AVR Controllers Using Modern Optimization Techniques ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2018
- , " Integration of Renewable Distributed Generation in Distribution Networks Including a Practical Case Study Based on a Hybrid PSOGSA Optimization Algorithm ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2018
- , " Fault Analysis and Detection in Total Cross Tied Photovoltaic Arrays ", 2018 Twentieth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2018
- , " Optimal Allocation of Energy Storage System for Improving Performance of Microgrid Using Symbiotic Organisms Search ", 2018 Twentieth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2018
- , " Grey-Wolf Optimization Scenario for Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow Problem ", 2018 Twentieth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2018
- Youssef Mahmoud, H., Hussien Besheer, A., Mohamed Hasanien, H., Youssef Abdelaziz, A., " Different Control Strategies for Converter Based DC Energy Transmission in Offshore Wind Power: A Literature Survey ", 2018 20th International Middle East Power Systems Conference, MEPCON 2018 - Proceedings, 2019
- , " Time-Efficient Load Flow Technique for Radial Distribution Systems with Voltage-Dependent Loads ", International Journal on Energy Conversion (IRECON), 2018
- , " Sliding-mode control of power converters: AC/DC converters & DC/AC inverters ", International Journal of Control, 2018
- , " Optimal PI microcontroller-based realization for technical trends of single-stage single-phase grid-tied PV ", Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 2018
- , " Optimal design of fuzzy PID controller for deregulated LFC of multi-area power system via mine blast algorithm ", Neural Computing and Applications, 2018
- , " Detailed Investigation and Performance Improvement of the Dynamic Behavior of Grid-Connected DFIG-Based Wind Turbines Under LVRT Conditions ", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 2018
- , " LVCI approach for optimal allocation of distributed generations and capacitor banks in distribution grids based on moth–flame optimization algorithm ", Electrical Engineering, 2018
- , " Single and multi-objective operation management of micro-grid using krill herd optimization and ant lion optimizer algorithms ", International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 2018
- , " An adaptive algorithm to prevent distance relay overreach during CCVT transient ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2018
- , " Dynamic performance enhancement for wind energy conversion system using Moth-Flame Optimization based blade pitch controller ", Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 2018
- , " Unsynchronized fault-location technique for two- and three-terminal transmission lines ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2018
- , " Multi-Area Hydrothermal Interconnected Load Frequency Control with Double-Fed Induction-Generator-Based Wind Turbine via Improved Harmony Algorithm ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2018
- , " The Optimal Planning and Operation of Energy Storage Systems for Minimizing Cost of Energy Losses and Maximizing Arbitrage Benefit in the Presence of Wind Generation ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2018
- , " Single-objective optimal power flow for electric power systems based on crow search algorithm ", Polish Academy of Sciences, 2018
- , " Optimal allocation and sizing of renewable distributed generation using ant lion optimization algorithm ", Electrical Engineering, 2018
- , " Optimal sizing and placement of distributed generation in Egyptian radial distribution systems using crow search algorithm ", 2018 International Conference on Innovative Trends in Computer Engineering (ITCE), 2018
- Mohamed A. Tolba, Hegazy Rezk, Vladimir Tulsky, Ahmed A. Zaki Diab, Almoataz Abdelaziz, Artem Vanin, " Impact of Optimum Allocation of Renewable Distributed Generations on Distribution Networks Based on Different Optimization Algorithms ", Energies, 2018
- , " VLCI approach for optimal capacitors allocation in distribution networks based on hybrid PSOGSA optimization algorithm ", Neural Computing and Applications, 2018
- , " A Probabilistic Modeling Strategy for Wind Power and System Demand ", Soft Computing Systems, 2018
- , " Classical and Recent Aspects of Power System Optimization ", [], 2018
- , " Design of hybrid power generation systems connected to utility grid and natural gas distribution network ", Engineering review, 2018
- , " Optimal Allocation of Compensators ", Electric Distribution Network Planning, 2018
- , " Practical Considerations for Optimal Conductor Reinforcement and Hosting Capacity Enhancement in Radial Distribution Systems ", IEEE Access, 2018
- , " A new fuzzy framework for the optimal placement of phasor measurement units under normal and abnormal conditions ", Resource-Efficient Technologies, 2017
- Zaki, D.A., Hasanien, H.M., El-Amary, N.H., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Crow search algorithm for improving the performance of an inverter-based distributed generation system ", 2017 19th International Middle-East Power Systems Conference, MEPCON 2017 - Proceedings, 2018
- , " Enhancement of power system operation using grey wolf optimization algorithm ", 2017 Nineteenth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2017
- Ahmed, A.S., Attia, M.A., Hamed, N.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Comparison between genetic algorithm and whale optimization algorithm in fault location estimation in power systems ", 2017 Nineteenth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2017
- , " Optimal selection of conductors in Egyptian radial distribution systems using sine-cosine optimization algorithm ", 2017 Nineteenth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2017
- , " A probabilistic approach for maximizing the islanding success of microgrids ", 2017 Nineteenth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2017
- , " Simulation of large thermal power plant for protection purposes using ATP/EMTP ", 2017 Nineteenth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2017
- , " A comprehensive approach for energy storage systems optimal planning and operation in presence of wind power generation ", 2017 Nineteenth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2017
- , " Double-layer Firefly Algorithm for Simultaneous Optimal Sizing and Operation of Energy Hubs ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2017
- , " Optimal reclosing time to improve transient stability in distribution system ", CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal, 2017
- , " An optimal/adaptive reclosing technique for transient stability enhancement under single pole tripping ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2017
- Sanad Ahmed, A., Attia, M.A., Hamed, N.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Modern optimization algorithms for fault location estimation in power systems ", Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 2017
- , " Synchrophasors assisted protection scheme for the shunt-compensated transmission line ", IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, 2017
- , " Firefly Optimization Algorithm for the Reactive Power Control of an Isolated Wind-Diesel System ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2017
- , " Optimal PMUs placement for full observability of electrical power systems using flower pollination algorithm ", 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE), 2017
- , " Distribution system performance enhancement using power filter/compensator device ", 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE), 2017
- , " A comparison of different global MPPT techniques based on meta-heuristic algorithms for photovoltaic system subjected to partial shading conditions ", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2017
- , " A non-unit protection scheme for double circuit series capacitor compensated transmission lines ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2017
- , " A novel single end measuring system based fast identification scheme for transmission line faults ", Measurement, 2017
- , " Grey Wolf Optimizer for Optimal Sizing and Siting of Energy Storage System in Electric Distribution Network ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2017
- , " Electrical energy management in unbalanced distribution networks using virtual power plant concept ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2017
- , " A directional protection scheme during single pole tripping ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2017
- , " Energy hub optimization using modified firefly algorithm ", 2017 8th International Renewable Energy Congress (IREC), 2017
- , " An Accurate Technique for Discrimination between Transient and Permanent Faults in Transmission Networks ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2017
- , " Ant Lion Optimization Algorithm for optimal location and sizing of renewable distributed generations ", Renewable Energy, 2017
- , " Application and performance comparison of variants of the firefly algorithm to the Economic Load Dispatch problem ", 2017 Third International Conference on Advances in Electrical, Electronics, Information, Communication and Bio-Informatics (AEEICB), 2017
- , " Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm for Fault Section Estimation ", Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2017
- , " Egyptian Grid Code of Wind Farms and Power Quality ", Handbook of Distributed Generation, 2017
- , " A novel Monte Carlo based modeling strategy for wind based renewable energy sources ", 2016 Eighteenth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2016
- , " Ant Lion Optimization Algorithm for Renewable Distributed Generations ", Energy, 2016
- , " Fault section estimation in power systems Based on improved honey-bee mating optimization ", 2016 Eighteenth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2016
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Ali, E.S., Abd Elazim, S.M., " Combined economic and emission dispatch solution using Flower Pollination Algorithm ", International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 2016
- Adly, A.R., El Sehiemy, R.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Ayad, N.M.A., " Critical aspects on wavelet transforms based fault identification procedures in HV transmission line ", IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 2016
- Othman, A.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Enhanced Backtracking Search Algorithm for Optimal Coordination of Directional Over-current Relays Including Distributed Generation ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2016
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Ali, E.S., Abd Elazim, S.M., " Flower Pollination Algorithm and Loss Sensitivity Factors for optimal sizing and placement of capacitors in radial distribution systems ", International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 2016
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Ali, E.S., Abd Elazim, S.M., " Flower Pollination Algorithm for Optimal Capacitor Placement and Sizing in Distribution Systems ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2016
- Ali, E.S., Abd Elazim, S.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Improved Harmony Algorithm and Power Loss Index for optimal locations and sizing of capacitors in radial distribution systems ", International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 2016
- , " Optimum Clustering of Active Distribution Networks Using Back Tracking Search Algorithm ", Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing, 2016
- Abdelsalam, H.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " A New Strategy for Selection of Switching Instant to Reduce Transformer Inrush Current in a Single-phase Grid-connected Photovoltaic System ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2015
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., El-Sharkawy, M.A., Attia, M.A., Hegazy, Y.G., " A genetic algorithm for optimal allocation of FACTS to enhance power system performance with wind penetration ", ICET 2014 - 2nd International Conference on Engineering and Technology, 2015
- Kassem, A.M., Besheer, A.H., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " A linear quadratic gaussian approach for power transfer maximization of a point absorber wave energy converter ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2015
- Othman, M.M., Hegazy, Y.G., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " A modified firefly algorithm for optimal sizing and siting of voltage controlled distributed generators in distribution networks ", Periodica Polytechnica, Electrical Engineering, 2015
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Hegazy, Y.G., El-Khattam, W., Othman, M.M., " A multi-objective optimization for sizing and placement of voltage-controlled distributed generation using supervised big bang-big crunch method ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2015
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Ezzat, M., Sameh, W., Saket, R.K., Anand Kumar, K.S., " An Integrated Passive Islanding Detection Method for Grid Connected PV Distributed Generators ", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 2015
- Hasanien, H.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " An adaptive-controlled superconducting magnetic energy storage unit for stabilizing a grid-connected wind generator ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2015
- Othman, M.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Hegazi, Y.G., El-Khattam, W., " Approach for modelling stochastically dependent renewable energy-based generators using diagonal band copula ", IET Renewable Power Generation, 2015
- Kassem, A.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " BFA optimization for voltage and frequency control of a stand-alone wind generation unit ", Electrical Engineering, 2015
- Atallah, A.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Ali, M., Saket, R.K., Anand Kumar, K.S., " Cable Laying Precautions in Offshore Wind Farms with Reactive Power Compensation ", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 2015
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Ali, E.S., " Cuckoo Search algorithm based load frequency controller design for nonlinear interconnected power system ", International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 2015
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Ali, E.S., " Load Frequency Controller Design via Artificial Cuckoo Search Algorithm ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2015
- Osama, R.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Swief, R.A., Ezzat, M., " Microgrid self adequacy optimization using back tracking search algorithm ", IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2015
- Swief, R.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Nagy, A., " Optimail strategy for over Current relay coordination using Genetic Algorithm ", ICET 2014 - 2nd International Conference on Engineering and Technology, 2015
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., El-Sharkawy, M.A., Attia, M.A., " Optimal Location of Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensation and Static VAR Compensator to Enhance Steady-state Performance of Power System with Wind Penetration ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2015
- Othman, A.M., El-Fergany, A.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Optimal Reconfiguration Comprising Voltage Stability Aspect Using Enhanced Binary Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2015
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Hegazy, Y.G., El-Khattam, W., Othman, M.M., " Optimal allocation of stochastically dependent renewable energy based distributed generators in unbalanced distribution networks ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2015
- Kassem, A.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Optimal control of an autonomous variable-speed wind generation system based on a bacterial foraging optimization technique ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2015
- Othman, M.M., El-Khattam, W., Hegazy, Y.G., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Optimal placement and sizing of distributed generators in unbalanced distribution systems using supervised big bang-big crunch method ", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2015
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Hegazy, Y.G., El-Khattam, W., Othman, M.M., " Optimal planning of distributed generators in distribution networks using modified firefly method ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2015
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Ali, E.S., " Static VAR Compensator Damping Controller Design Based on Flower Pollination Algorithm for a Multi-machine Power System ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2015
- , " A firefly based optimization algorithm for optimal planning of voltage controlled distributed generators ", Engineering Optimization 2014, 2014
- Besheer, A.H., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " A comparative analysis for different kinds of single diode model photovoltaic module ", 2014 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia, ISGT ASIA 2014, 2014
- Othman, M.M., El-Khattam, W., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Hegazy, Y.G., " A firefly based optimization algorithm for optimal planning of voltage controlled distributed generators ", Engineering Optimization IV - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Engineering Optimization, ENGOPT 2014, 2014
- El-Fergany, A.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Artificial bee colony algorithm to allocate fixed and switched static shunt capacitors in radial distribution networks ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2014
- El-Fergany, A.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Capacitor allocations in radial distribution networks using cuckoo search algorithm ", IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 2014
- El-Fergany, A.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Capacitor placement for net saving maximization and system stability enhancement in distribution networks using artificial bee colony-based approach ", International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 2014
- El-Fergany, A.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Efficient heuristic-based approach for multi-objective capacitor allocation in radial distribution networks ", IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 2014
- Kassem, A.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Functional predictive control for voltage stability improvements of autonomous hybrid wind-diesel power system ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2014
- Abdelsalam, H.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Osama, R.A., Salem, R.H., " Impact of distribution system reconfiguration on optimal placement of phasor measurement units ", 2014 Clemson University Power Systems Conference, PSC 2014, 2014
- Abdelsalam, H.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Letter to the editor: A brief overview of nanotechnology applications in smart power grid ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2014
- El-Fergany, A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Multi-objective capacitor allocations in distribution networks using artificial bee colony algorithm ", Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, 2014
- Abdelsalam, H.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mukherjee, V., " Optimal PMU placement in a distribution network considering network reconfiguration ", 2014 International Conference on Circuits, Power and Computing Technologies, ICCPCT 2014, 2014
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., El-Sharkawy, M.A., Attia, M.A., El-Saadany, E.F., " Optimal location of series FACTS to improve the performance of power system with wind penetration ", IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2014
- Hegazy, Y.G., Othman, M.M., El-Khattam, W., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Optimal sizing and siting of distributed generators using Big Bang Big Crunch method ", Proceedings of the Universities Power Engineering Conference, 2014
- El-Fergany, A.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Reactive power compensation in distribution networks using cuckoo search algorithm ", International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation, 2014
- Kassem, A.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Reactive power control for voltage stability of standalone hybrid wind-diesel power system based on functional model predictive control ", IET Renewable Power Generation, 2014
- Besheer, A.H., Kassem, A.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Single-diode model based photovoltaic module: Analysis and comparison approach ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2014
- El-Fergany, A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Panigrahi, B.K., " Artificial Bee Colony-Based Approach for Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Networks ", Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing, 2013
- El-Fergany, A.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Cuckoo search-based algorithm for optimal shunt capacitors allocations in distribution networks ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2013
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Osama, R.A., Elkhodary, S.M., " Distribution systems reconfiguration using ant colony optimization and harmony search algorithms ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2013
- Abdelsalam, H.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Osama, R.A., Panigrahi, B.K., " Effect of Photovoltaic and Wind Power Variations in Distribution System Reconfiguration for Loss Reduction Using Ant Colony Algorithm ", Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing, 2013
- Naiem, A.F., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Hegazy, Y.G., Elsharkawy, M.A., El-Shahat, I.A., " Effect of distributed generation modelling on performance of distribution systems ", International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion, 2013
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mekhamer, S.F., Ezzat, M., " Fault location of uncompensated/series-compensated lines using two-end synchronized measurements ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2013
- Kamel, A., Alaam, M.A., Azmy, A.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Protection coordination for distribution systems in presence of distributed generators ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2013
- Abdelsalam, H.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Use of nanotechnology in smart power grid ", Journal of Bionanoscience, 2013
- Abdelsalam, H.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Wide-area automatic voltage regulators controller for damping oscillations based on inter-area modes ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2013
- Naiem, A.F., Hegazy, Y., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Elsharkawy, M.A., " A classification technique for recloser-fuse coordination in distribution systems with distributed generation ", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 2012
- Osama, R.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Elkhodary, S.M., " Ant colony optimization and harmony search algorithms for distribution networks reconfiguration ", 2012 8th International Conference on Informatics and Systems, INFOS 2012, 2012
- Mekhamer, S.F., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Ezzat, M., Abdel-Salam, T.S., " Fault location in long transmission lines using synchronized phasor measurements from both ends ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2012
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mekhamer, S.F., Khattab, H.M., Badr, M.L.A., Panigrahi, B.K., " Gene Expression Programming Algorithm for Transient Security Classification ", Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing, 2012
- Khattab, H.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mekhamer, S.F., Badr, M.A.L., El-Saadany, E.F., " Gene expression programming for static security assessment of power systems ", IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., El-Sharkawy, M.A., Attia, M.A., Panigrahi, B.K., " Genetic Algorithm Based Approach for Optimal Allocation of TCSC for Power System Loadability Enhancement ", Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing, 2012
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Ibrahim, A.M., Asim, A.M., Razek, A.H.A., Hegazy, Y.G., " Investigation of electrical dynamics of DFIG-based wind turbines during severe symmetrical grid voltage dips ", International Conference on Engineering and Technology, ICET 2012 - Conference Booklet, 2012
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mekhamer, S.F., Ezzat, M., El-Saadany, E.F., " Line outage detection using support Vector Machine (SVM) based on the Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) technology ", IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Osama, R.A., El-Khodary, S.M., " Reconfiguration of distribution systems for loss reduction using the hyper-cube ant colony optimisation algorithm ", IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 2012
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Osama, R.A., Elkhodary, S.M., El-Saadany, E.F., " Reconfiguration of distribution systems with distributed generators using Ant Colony Optimization and Harmony Search algorithms ", IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Rahman, M.A., Moussa, M.S., " Distance protection for multi-terminal transmission lines ", 2011 2nd International Conference on Electric Power and Energy Conversion Systems, EPECS 2011, 2011
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Osama, R.A., El-Khodary, S.M., Panigrahi, B.K., " Distribution Systems Reconfiguration Using the Hyper-Cube Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm ", Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing, 2011
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Elkhodary, S.M., Osama, R.A., " Distribution networks reconfiguration for loss reduction using the hyper cube ant colony optimization ", Proceedings - ICCES'2011: 2011 International Conference on Computer Engineering and Systems, 2011
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., El-Sharkawy, M.A., Attia, M.A., " Optimal location of thyristor-controlled series compensators in power systems for increasing loadability by genetic algorithm ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2011
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mekhamer, S.F., Badr, M.A.L., Khattab, H.M., " Probabilistic neural network classifier for static voltage security assessment of power systems ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2011
- Naiem, A.F., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Hegazy, Y., Elsharkawy, M.A., " Recloser-fuse coordination assessment by classification technique for distribution systems with distributed generation ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2011
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Osama, R.A., El-Khodary, S.M., Panigrahi, B.K., " Reconfiguration of Distribution Systems for Loss Reduction Using the Harmony Search Algorithm ", Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing, 2011
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mekhamer, S.F., Nada, M.H., " A fuzzy expert system for loss reduction and voltage control in radial distribution systems ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2010
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mohamed, F.M., Mekhamer, S.F., Badr, M.A.L., " Distribution system reconfiguration using a modified Tabu Search algorithm ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2010
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mekhamer, S.F., Badr, M.A.L., Mohamed, F.M., El-Saadany, E.F., " A modified particle swarm algorithm for distribution systems reconfiguration ", 2009 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PES '09, 2009
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mohammed, F.M., Mekhamer, S.F., Badr, M.A.L., " Distribution Systems Reconfiguration using a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2009
- Mekhamer, S.F., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Kamh, M.Z., Badr, M.A.L., " Dynamic economic dispatch using a hybrid hopfield neural network quadratic programming based technique ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2009
- Kamh, M.Z., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mekhamer, S.F., Badr, M.A.L., " Modified augmented hopfield neural network for optimal thermal unit commitment ", 2009 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PES '09, 2009
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Kamh, M.Z., Mekhamer, S.F., Badr, M.A.L., " A hybrid HNN-QP approach for dynamic economic dispatch problem ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2008
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mekhamer, S.F., Kamh, M.Z., Badr, M.A.L., " A hybrid hopfield neural network-quadratic programming approach for dynamic economic dispatch problem ", 2008 12th International Middle East Power System Conference, MEPCON 2008, 2008
- Mekhamer, S.F., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mohammed, F.M., Badr, M.A.L., " A new intelligent optimization technique for distribution systems reconfiguration ", 2008 12th International Middle East Power System Conference, MEPCON 2008, 2008
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mekhamer, S.F., Badr, M.A.L., Kamh, M.Z., " Economic dispatch using an enhanced Hopfield neural network ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2008
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Badr, M.A.L., Younes, A.H., " Dynamic load modeling of an Egyptian primary distribution system using neural networks ", International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 2007
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Badr, M.A.L., Younes, A.H., " Artificial neural network for load modeling of an Egyptian primary distribution system ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2006
- Mekhamer, S.F., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Badr, M.A.L., Kamh, M.Z., " Enhancing the performance of hopfield neural network applied to the economic dispatch problem ", Proceedings of the 11th International Middle East Power Systems Conference, MEPCON'2006, 2006
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Abbas, A.A., Naiem, A.F., Elsharkawy, M.A., " Transient stability assessment using an adaptive fuzzy classification technique ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2006
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Abu-Elnaga, M.M., Elsharkawy, M.A., Elbahrawy, K.M., " Voltage stability assessment of multi-machine power systems using energy function and neural networks techniques ", Electric Power Components and Systems, 2006
- Mohamed, E.A., Abdelaziz, A.Y., Mostafa, A.S., " A neural network-based scheme for fault diagnosis of power transformers ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2005
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Ibrahim, A.M., Mansour, M.M., Talaat, H.E., " Modern approaches for protection of series compensated transmission lines ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2005
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Talaat, H.E.A., Nosseir, A.I., Hajjar, A.A., " An adaptive protection scheme for optimal coordination of overcurrent relays ", Electric Power Systems Research, 2002
- El-Kady, F.M., Abdelaziz, A.Y., " Voltage stability assessment of electrical power systems using artificial neural networks ", Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 2001
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Irving, M.R., Mansour, M.M., El-Arabaty, A.M., Nosseir, A.I., " Adaptive protection strategies for detecting power system out-of-step conditions using neural networks ", IEE Proceedings: Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 1998
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Irving, M.R., Mansour, M.M., El-Arabaty, A.M., Nosseir, A.I., " Neural network-based adaptive out-of-step protection strategy for electrical power systems ", International Journal of Engineering Intelligent Systems for Electrical Engineering and Communications, 1997
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Irving, M.R., Mansour, M.M., El-Arabaty, A.M., Nosseir, A.I., " Adaptive detection of generator out-of-step conditions in power systems using an artificial neural network ", IEE Conference Publication, 1996
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Irving, M.R., Mansour, M.M., El-Arabaty, A.M., " Fast prediction of out-of-step condition by artificial neural networks for power system transient stability assessment ", Proceedings of the Universities Power Engineering Conference, 1995
- Abdelaziz, A.Y., Irving, M.R., El-Arabaty, A.M., Mansour, M.M., " Out-of-step prediction based on artificial neural networks ", Electric Power Systems Research, 1995
- El-Arabaty, A.M., Talaat, H.A., Mansour, M.M., Abd-Elaziz, A.Y., " Out-of-step detection based on pattern recognition ", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 1994