Irrigation System and Networks
Modern irrigation systems are not any more an option, at the water scarcity situation that Egypt faces, especially after the expected negative impacts of GERD. A research project was conducted in an organic farm to investigate the subsurface drip irrigation efficiency. The pipeline material, spacing between emitters, and soil profile, were analysed. Moisture sensors and weather stations were installed to measure the soil moisture and climate parameters. The crop evapotranspiration and the amount of irrigation water were determined using software based on Penman–Monteith approach. The FAO guidelines were used as a reference. The obtained climate and crop growth parameters were analysed and the crop water use (which was simultaneously adjusted by the moisture graphs of the root zone) was effectively determined. Subsurface drip irrigation efficiency proves to be more than normal drip irrigation, besides its positive impacts on absence of weeds.
The irrigation efficiency can also be increased by soil properties. So, to achieve high productivity of agricultural crops with less water use that will certainly help to alleviate or solve the water scarcity issue, soil additives were used. The study used a physical based model, to simulate the methods used to increase sand soil properties to ensure larger water retention index. Within this work, soil have been sampled from different areas, to simulate the behaviour of arid lands, under different water retention techniques. Soil was mixed with additives in different quantities and different types. Physical barriers of cohesive soil and polyethylene sheets were used in addition to studying the effect of mulch on water storage capacity in non-cohesive soil. The experiment showed that the use of rice straw (RS) and wheat straw (WS) in the powder condition have a significant effect in increasing in the soil water content and even to the plant growth. These proven technologies can be used in sandy land targeted for reclamation to reduce water use in agriculture.
Related Journal Publication List
- Effects of drip irrigation water amount on crop yield, productivity and efficiency of water use in desert regions in Egypt, Nile Basin Water Science& Engineering Journal 3 (2), 96-109.
- Environmentally Friendly Soil Water Conservation Techniques, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-9 Issue-1, October 2019.
- “Water resources management using remote sensing case study: el nubayia project”. Third Ain Shams University international conference on environmental engineering, ASCEE-3, 14-16 April 2009, Volume1, pages 367-380.